Resource Optimization Initiative
About Industrial Ecology
Diagnostic Tools
System View
Material Flow Analysis or Resource Flow Analysis (MFA or RFA)
Why the Name "Industrial Ecology"
A Short History of Industrial Ecology
Resource Utilization Map
The Kalundborg Example
Substance Flow Analysis
The Industrial Ecology Agenda
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Why Developing Countries
A Few Typical Strategy Options
How can these Concepts be used?
Who can benefit from Industrial Ecology
  Why the Name "Industrial Ecology"


"Industrial Ecology" explores the idea that industrial activities should not be considered in isolation from the natural world but rather as a part of the natural system. In fact industrial systems should be viewed as industrial ecosystems that function within the natural ecological system or biosphere. The industrial system, in a similar way to the natural ecosystem, essentially consists of flows of materials, energy and information, and furthermore relies on resources and services provided by the biosphere. It is important to stress that the word 'industrial', in the context of "Industrial Ecology", refers to all human activities occurring within the modern technological society. Therefore, tourism, housing, medical services, transportation and agriculture are all part of the industrial system. And the word 'ecology', here, refers to the science of ecosystems.


About Industrial Ecology | Case Studies | Specialists | Books