Resource Optimization Initiative
About Industrial Ecology
Diagnostic Tools
System View
Material Flow Analysis or Resource Flow Analysis (MFA or RFA)
Why the Name "Industrial Ecology"
A Short History of Industrial Ecology
Resource Utilization Map
The Kalundborg Example
Substance Flow Analysis
The Industrial Ecology Agenda
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Why Developing Countries
A Few Typical Strategy Options
How can these Concepts be used?
Who can benefit from Industrial Ecology
  The Kalundborg Example


A process of "Industrial Symbiosis", which has evolved during the last three decades in the small city of Kalundborg, in Denmark, offers the best evidence that such an approach can be very practical and economically viable. Kalundborg, located 130 km west of Copenhagen, can be seen as a successful example of an industrial complex minimizing pollution and optimizing the use of various resources.

A few industries located there, including a power plant, a gypboard plant, a biotech unit, the fishing activity in the town and the town municipality developed a method of sharing each other's wastes to mutual advantage. The material flows between industries in Kalundborg for the year 1999 are shown in the figure below. Ever since the initial discovery of these interactions in 1989, the economic and environmental benefits along with specific details of resources being shared by industries in Kalundborg has been documented and advocated by the Kalundborg Centre for Industrial Symbiosis. A discussion on Industrial Ecology is never complete without a reference to Kalundborg!

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