Resource Optimization Initiative
About Industrial Ecology
Diagnostic Tools
System View
Material Flow Analysis or Resource Flow Analysis (MFA or RFA)
Why the Name "Industrial Ecology"
A Short History of Industrial Ecology
Resource Utilization Map
The Kalundborg Example
Substance Flow Analysis
The Industrial Ecology Agenda
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Why Developing Countries
A Few Typical Strategy Options
How can these Concepts be used?
Who can benefit from Industrial Ecology
  Why Developing Countries


Industrial Ecology is of great relevance to developing countries where resources are stressed due to high population density and rapid industrialization. It affords an opportunity for developing countries to measure the flow of resources through different anthropogenic activities. Such measurements are necessary to plan and recommend strategies for sustainable utilization of resources.

Most developing countries are short of material and energy resources; many sections of the population do not have easy access to them. An industrial ecology approach should provide optimal strategies that are desirable in the long run.

Equally importantly, in most developing countries, resources (particularly land, water and energy) are not priced based on their value to society or at fair market prices. Often, these resources are priced so that they are affordable to majority of the population.

About Industrial Ecology | Case Studies | Specialists | Books